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When the AC voltage is applied to the primary winding of the isolation transformer, a current will flow through the winding. This isolation transformer current generates an alternating magnetic flux in the iron core, causing the primary winding to make electromagnetic contact with the secondary winding. According to the principle of electromagnetic induction, the alternating magnetic flux through these two windings will generate electromotive force, and the magnitude of the electromotive force is proportional to the larger number of winding turns and the main magnetic flux. The voltage on the multi-turn winding side is high, and the voltage on the small-turn winding side is low.

When AC power is connected to the primary winding, AC power of isolation transformer will be induced and AC power will pass through the core through the secondary winding. AC power in the secondary winding will generate AC power. When the number of turns of the secondary winding is greater than the number of turns of the primary winding, the voltage increases. If the number of turns of the secondary winding is less than the number of turns of the primary winding, the voltage will decrease. The number of turns is the same, and the primary and secondary voltages are 1: 1.

China’s low-voltage power supply system generally uses a three-phase four-wire system with the neutral line grounded.

One is the phase line and the other is the neutral line which is the neutral line. Because the neutral is grounded, it has the same potential as the earth. When the human body touches the earth and then contacts the phase line, the current will pass through the human body and form a loop with the earth, causing an electric shock hazard.

The primary and secondary of the isolation transformer exchange energy through a magnetic field. No physical hard links. The secondary wires are not grounded, and the human body stands on the ground, and then contacts any secondary wires. There is no potential difference between the secondary wires and the ground, so there will be no electric shock.

In addition to protecting personal safety, transformers are also used for machine maintenance, protection, lightning protection and filtering.

Of course, the isolation transformer is not necessarily safe for the human body. In a low-voltage system, when the human body touches any of the wires, it cannot form a circuit which can reduce the harm to the human body. For high-voltage power supply systems, although some neutral points of the transformer are not grounded, the leakage current from the isolation transformer or generator to the ground is actually equivalent to grounding with a large resistance. The current is small and will not affect the power grid. High-voltage lines can form electrical circuits through the body and the ground, causing electric shock.

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