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The inorganic solid insulating material is mainly composed of silicon, boron and various metal oxides, and is mainly composed of an ionic structure. The main features are high heat resistance, good stability, weather resistance, chemical resistance and long-term aging performance under the action of electric field. However, it has high brittleness, low impact strength, high pressure resistance, low tensile strength and poor processability.

The organic insulating material is generally a polymer having an average molecular weight of between 104 and 106. The heat resistance is usually lower than that of the inorganic material; and it also contains an aromatic ring, a heterocyclic ring, and a material such as silicon, titanium, fluorine, etc., so that the heat resistance is higher than that of a general linear chain polymer material.

In the application of insulating materials, its performance will also be changed by external factors, such as the strength of the molecular polarity and the content of polar components. Therefore, care should be taken to clean and prevent contamination during the manufacturing process of insulating materials. Moreover, capacitors require dielectrics with a high dielectric constant to improve their characteristics.

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